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Shedding light on shadow education in the Netherlands

PhD candidate: Daury Jansen, MSc

In the Netherlands, the use of private tutoring, exam training and homework support has vastly grown. These forms of privately funded, supplementary education activities are also referred to as ‘shadow education’. There are many questions regarding the use of shadow education. Which students use which forms and why? Which place does shadow education occupy within our educational system? What are the consequences of the use of shadow education, for individual students, schools and the educational system?

To fill in these knowledge gaps, as a first part of the PhD project, an NWO subsidized meta-analysis will be performed to discover causes and consequences of the use of shadow education from an international perspective. Under the umbrella of the research consortium ‘Equal opportunities for a diverse youth’, we will then move to a national perspective, studying the causes and consequences of the use of shadow education in the Netherlands, at the individual, school and system level.

Prof. dr. M.L.L. (Monique) Volman


Dr. L. (Louise) Elffers


Dr. S. (Suzanne) Jak